Vipers live on every continent of the world except for Australia and Antarctica. They do not live on isolated islands or north of the Arctic Circle.

In the Americas, vipers are native to Southern Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America and South America. Vipers also reside in deserts and forested areas of Europe, Asia and Africa. Most vipers live on the ground, although some live in trees or water. Vipers may live in close proximity to humans. People should use extreme caution in areas where vipers reside because of the risk of a snake bite, which can be fatal.