According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, harp seals live in the waters surrounding the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and can be found between Newfoundland and Northern Russia. The entire harp seal population is distributed into three groups, and each group has its own breeding site.

The first and largest group of harp seals is known as the Western North Atlantic stock, and their breeding site is located off of Eastern Canada. The second stock's breeding site is located near the "West Ice" off of Eastern Greenland. The third stock breeds near the "East Ice" in the White Sea off the coast of Russia. Breeding can occur anytime between February and April and depends on each individual stock.