Fairy penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere, along the southern coast of Australia, and in several locations in New Zealand. In New Zealand, they are known as blue penguins.

These small, slate blue or indigo birds, which are the smallest of all penguins, do not migrate, but stay year-round in their habitats. These small birds are terrific divers, which is reflected in their scientific genus name, "Eudyptula," which means "good little diver."

In Australia, they can be found along the southern coast from Port Stephens in the east to Fremantle in the west. In New Zealand, they call several locations home, including North Island, South Island, the west and southeast coasts of New Zealand and Chatham Island.