The long-beaked echidna lives in the highlands of New Guinea, and the short-beaked echidna lives mainly in New Guinea and Australia. The short-beaked echidna is also found in Tasmania, King Island, Flinders Island and Kangaroo Island.
Echidnas are found in a wide variety of habitats including mountains, deserts and even urban areas. They are solitary and each have a large territory in which they feed and live, though this territory often overlaps with the territory of other echidnas. They are burrowing animals, and they are especially likely to take shelter underground during inclement weather. The echidna feeds primarily on termites, using its long sticky tongue in much the same fashion as an anteater.
Echidnas are monotremes that reproduce by laying eggs. The mother carries the egg in a pouch, and the newly hatched echidna will stay with her and suckle for about 3 months.