Captive rabbits live between 8 and 12 years, while wild rabbits have a shorter life span due to predators. In 2013, the world's oldest rabbit mentioned in the Guinness Book of World Records, Do, died at the age of 17.

A captive female rabbit that is not allowed to reproduce but isn't spayed is at a high risk of getting uterine cancer. This can reduce the life span by half or more, with some bunnies as young as one showing signs of uterine cancer.

Rabbits kept outdoors year round often have shorter life spans than those brought indoors. This is due to the dangers of living outdoors, like extreme temperature changes and predators.