The average gestation period for a full-size goat is 150 days. A miniature goat is pregnant for 145 days. It is best for a female goat, or doe, to be a healthy weight before she is bred.

If a doe is underweight, she may not be able to become pregnant. Even if she does, she is less likely to have twins rather than a single kid. Overweight does tend to have fewer gestational problems, though pregnancy toxemia is a concern. This is usually caused by low blood sugar and may be fatal. The condition of male goats — bucks — is also important. Bucks who are too heavy or too thin often have no interest in breeding.