According to the American Museum of Natural History, scientists have unearthed evidence that the Botai people were raising domesticated horses for food in northern Kazakhstan 5,600 years ago. Horse bones were found with chariot artefacts dating around 2,000 BC in Russia and Kazakhstan.
By the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago, wild horses became extinct in the American continents and rare in western Europe. Horses continued to exist in eastern Europe and central Asia. Wikipedia states that domesticated horses may have survived because they were kept and cared for by humans.
Horse breeding is thought to have began when horses were first domesticated, but the first people to keep records of bloodlines were the Bedouins who raised Arabian horses. Some modern Andalusian horses have lineages that can be traced back to 14th century Spain where monks kept written records.
The Spaniards brought horses to the Americas when they were exploring and establishing colonies in the 16th century. From that point forward, Native American tribes also began using horses for traveling into new territories, trading with other tribes and hunting.
The domesticated horse is one of three subspecies of Equus ferus. The other living subspecies is the Przewalski's horse, or Mongolian wild horse, which has never been domesticated and lives in central Asia to this day. The third subspecies, the Tarpan, also known as the European wild horse, became extinct in 1909 when the last individual died in captivity in Russia.