The adaptations of tiger sharks include excellent vision, a sophisticated sense of smell, sharp teeth, and electroreceptors that detect the presence, location and movement of prey. These powerful sharks are ferocious predators and are one of the few shark species notorious for attacking humans without provocation. According to the Florida Museum of Natural History, only bull and white sharks have a similar propensity for biting humans.

Tiger sharks have large eyes capable of seeing clearly in dark conditions. Consequently, they hunt successfully at dawn and dusk, where light is scarce and prey are unlikely to notice the sharks until it is too late to escape.

Tiger sharks also enjoy great olfactory acuity and easily detect tiny amounts of blood in the water. Combined with the sharks' formidable swimming speed, their heightened sense of smell helps the shark reach prey before other predators detect the blood.

One of the tiger shark's greatest evolutionary adaptations and advantages is its ability to detect the motion of distant creatures. Each shark has a series of biological motion detectors on its flanks. This sensor array is called the lateral line, and it helps tiger sharks anticipate prey movements and counter evasion swimming maneuvers. The lateral line is especially powerful when combined with electroreceptors that detect the distinct electrical impulses emitted by living, viable prey animals.