Peacocks, also known as peafowl, reproduce by laying eggs during the early spring and into the summer. A peacock's breeding age is usually at 3 years old, but younger peacocks, referred to as yearlings, have been known to mate at 2 years of age. Female peacocks are called peahens.

A peahen is more likely to lay eggs when she is in the same pen as a matured peacock, which would also be 3 years old. This is when males grow their full tail feathers, which are very important to the breeding process. These feathers, referred to as the tail train, can grow to be very long. Yearlings that grow tail train's prematurely are more likely to attract mates than their peers who haven't grown theirs yet.

During mating season, a peacock will typically mate with up to five peahens, also known as a harem. Peahens start laying their eggs in March and can lay up to 30 eggs per mating season. Breeders are always looking to see which peacocks successfully breed, strictly avoid inbreeding as this causes deformities and unhealthy offspring. A laid egg is about the size of turkey egg with a brownish color. Breeders usually collect the eggs and artificially incubate them.