Having children can make parents feel more accepted by society and have a larger network of social support, but it can reduce time for hobbies, relaxation and even sleep. As with other aspects of life, parenting brings ups and downs. People without children enjoy quieter homes and more personal time but may feel lonelier than couples with families, especially around the holidays.

Couples with young children sometimes struggle with balancing different aspects of life, such as work, personal time and time with children. Having too little time can create stress and anxiety and cause tensions within families. Children require a significant amount of financial coverage, which makes parenting among lower-income couples worrisome. People without children may enjoy better health and even improved intimacy of relationships. Expenses, health and minimized personal time aside, not having children creates disadvantages too. People without children find themselves, more often than not, surrounded by peers with children. They may feel isolated when others discuss their children and feel removed from typical life experiences of friends and family members. Not having children requires a greater investment of time when planning for retirement and establishing wills. Parents often leave valuables and personal effects to children, but childless couples allocate those resources elsewhere.