The general procedure for a hysterectomy involves the total or partial removal of the uterus through different surgical methods. Depending on the type of hysterectomy performed, it may also entail removing other organs, such as the ovaries, cervix, part of the vagina and Fallopian tubes. When all these organs are removed, this surgery is called a radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, as noted by Cleveland Clinic.
The other different types of hysterectomies are total, supracervical and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A supracervical hysterectomy involves the partial removal of the uterus but the cervix is left intact, while a total procedure entails the removal of both the cervix and uterus.
Hysterectomies may be necessary for conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroid, uterine prolapse or cancer that affects either the cervix or uterus, as stated by Cleveland Clinic. A hysterectomy procedure can be performed by either making an incision in the vagina close to the cervix, or through the abdomen.
In an abdominal hysterectomy, the incision is vertical, extending from the navel to the pubic area. This procedure is often used under certain conditions, including when the ovaries and Fallopian tubes need to be removed, or surgery is due to a disease that has spread, such as cancer. Vaginal hysterectomy is utilized for conditions such as uterine prolapse states Johns Hopkins Medicine. Vaginal hysterectomies may also be performed with the aid of a laparoscope.